HomeNursing Research Pain Consortium

Nursing Research Pain Consortium

The Regional Nursing Research Pain Consortium creates and sustains a nursing scientific community that supports local projects to improve pain management in all populations across the continuum of care. 

View the Pain Consortium Charter here

Pain Consortium Resources from Kaiser: 

Pain Resource Nurse Integrative ReviewClick here to view the PDF

* Pain Management Program Literature Review- click here

*Pain Management Program Evaluation Page and Resources – click here

* Pain Resource Nurse Program at Kaiser Los Angeles Medical Center: click here to view the available resources for implementing a Pain Resource Nurse program.  (please note all documents are available only via intranet)

Webinars and Conferences on Pain:

* City of Hope Pain Resource Nurse training Click here


Pain Resources on the Web:

*American Journal of Nursing- March 2017 issue: Multimodal Analgesia for Acute Pain – Click here

American Chronic Pain Association- Click here

* Relieving Pain in America: A Blueprint for Transforming Prevention, Care, Education, and Research (Institute of Medicine)- Click here

* The American Academy of Pain Medicine. AAPM Facts and Figures on Pain- Click here

* National Institute of Health Pain Consortium- Click here

* American Pain Society – Click here

* Profiting From Pain- The New York Times Article- Click here

* American Chronic Pain Association’s Ability Chart is a tool for patients to identify spcifically how arthritis impacts their daily functioning- Click here 

* AACN Practice Alert- Assessing Pain in the Critically Ill Adult- Click here

* Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Pain, Agitation, and Delirium in Adult Patients in the Intensive Care Unit- Click here


Journal Watch:

Crawford, C.L., Boller, J., Jadalla, A.J., & Cuenca, E. (January 2016). An Integrative Review of Pain Resource Nurse Programs. Crit Care Nurs Q Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 64–82. Mismanaged pain challenges health care systems. In the early 1990s, pain resource nurse programs were developed by Ferrell and colleagues. Variations of the model have existed for more than 20 years. While results of these programs have been disseminated, conclusive evidence has not been examined via a synthesis of the literature. A structured systematic search using multiple databases was conducted for research studies published 2005-2012. The search identified 11 studies on effective use of a pain resource nurse and/or a pain resource nurse program. The results revealed wide variations existing in program design, research methodology, practice settings, and reported outcomes. Overall, the strength of the evidence on pain resource nurse programs was determined to range from low to moderate quality for making generalizable conclusions. However, 4 key elements were identified as integral to effective pain resource nurse programs and useful for the program design and development: leadership commitment and active involvement in embedding a culture of effective pain management throughout the organization; addressing staff-related and organization-related challenges and barriers to pain management; a combination of strategies to overcome these barriers; and collaborative multidisciplinary teamwork and communication. Specific recommendations are provided for program implementation. Although the evidence was inconclusive, useful information exists to create the design of effective pain resource nurse programs. Collaborative multisite studies on the long-term effects of pain resource nurse programs are recommended.  Click here to view

Wynne-Jones G, et al (2013) Absence from work and return to work in people with back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.Occup Environ Med. 2013 Nov 1. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2013-101571. To investigate the extent to which differences in setting, country, sampling procedures and methods for data collection are responsible for variation in estimates of work absence and return to work. Pooled estimates suggest high return to work rates, with wide variation in estimates of return to work only partly explained by a priori defined study-level variables. The estimated 32% not back at work at 1 month are at a crucial point for intervention to prevent long term work absence. Click here to view

Vachon–Presseau E, et al (2013)The two sides of pain communication: effects of pain expressiveness on vicarious brain responses revealed in chronic back pain patients. The Journal of PainVolume 14, Issue 11 , Pages 1407-1415.  Activity in the right insula correlated positively with both the patients’ expressiveness (encoding) and the intensity of the pain perceived in the images (decoding), suggesting that this structure linked the dispositional expressiveness with vicarious pain perception. Importantly, these effects were independent from dispositional empathy and were found with both communicative (facial expression) and noncommunicative (hand and foot) cues. These results suggest that dispositional expressiveness is a self–related factor that facilitates vicarious pain processing and might reflect individual tendencies to rely on social coping strategies. Click here to view

 Linde, Sandra M., et al. (2013) Reevaluation of the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool in Intubated Adults After Cardiac Surgery. Am J Crit Care. 2013 Nov;22(6):491-7. Background Pain assessment in critically ill patients who are intubated, sedated, and unable to verbalize their needs remains a challenge. No universally accepted pain assessment tool is used in all intensive care units. Objectives To examine concurrent validation of scores on the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool for a painful and a non-painful procedure and to examine interrater reliability of the scores between 2 nurse raters. Methods A prospective, repeated-measures within-subject design was used. A convenience sample of 35 patients was recruited to achieve enrollment of 30 patients during a 5-month period. Observational data were collected on patients intubated after cardiac surgery during routine turning and during dressing changes for central catheters. Results Raters’ mean scores did not increase significantly during dressing changes (increase, +0.25; 95% CI, -0.07 to 0.57; P = .12) but did increase significantly during turning (increase, +3.04; 95% CI 2.11-3.98; P < .001). The degree to which mean scores increased was significantly greater during turning than during dressing changes (increase, +2.80; 95% CI, 1.84-3.75; P < .001). The Fleiss-Cohen weighted κ for the inter-rater reliability of the ratings of research nurses was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.79-0.94). Conclusion The results support previous research investigations on validity and reliability of the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool for evaluating pain in intubated, critically ill adults.  Click here to view

Craine CI, Glenn LL (2013) Pain Assessment and Staff Attention to Pain in Nursing Homes. Pain Manag Nurs. 2013 Aug 1. pii: S1524-9042(13)00069-6. doi: 10.1016/j.pmn.2013.05.004.  Click here to view

Juliana Barr, MD, FCCM1,; Gilles L. Fraser, PharmD, FCCM2,; Kathleen Puntillo, RN, PhD, FAAN, FCCM3,E. Wesley Ely, MD, MPH, FACP, FCCM4, Céline Gélinas, RN, PhD5, ; Joseph F. Dasta, MSc, FCCM, FCCP6 et al. (2013).  Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Pain, Agitation, and Delirium in Adult Patients in the Intensive Care Unit. Crit Care Med. 2013 Jan;41(1):263-306. doi: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3182783b72.  Click here to view

Düzel V, Aytaç N, Oztunç G. (2013). A Study on the Correlation Between the Nurses’ and Patients’ Postoperative Pain Assessments. Pain Manag Nurs. 2013 Sep;14(3):126-32. doi: 10.1016/j.pmn.2010.07.009. Epub 2012 Oct 24. Click here to view

Joshua W. B. Klatt, MD, Jennie Mickelson, BS, Man Hung, PhD, Simon Durcan, MD, Chris Miller, MD, John T. Smith, MD ( 2013) A Randomized Prospective Evaluation of 3 Techniques of Postoperative Pain Management After Posterior Spinal Instrumentation and Fusion. Spine. 2013;38(19):1626-1631 . Click here to view

Faigeles B, Howie-Esquivel J, Miaskowski C, et al. (2013). Predictors and use of nonpharmacologic interventions for procedural pain associated with turning among hospitalized patients. Pain Mgt Nursing. 14(2):85-93. Use of a calming voice and deep breathing were the two most common non-pharmacological techniques used when turning patients. Gender and ethnicity were predictors of their use.  Click here to view

Coggon D, Ntani G, Palmer KT, et al. (2013). Disabling musculoskeletal pain in working populations: Is it the job, the person, or the culture? Pain. 154(6):856-63. Nurses, office workers and laborers from 18 countries reported significantly different levels of disabling pain unrelated to socioeconomic factors, commonly believed risks & access to health services or worker compensation. A pattern noted was nurses’ vulnerability (10-43%) to disabling back pain; with office workers more often (2-32%) reporting disabling hand & wrist pain.  Click here to view

 Stites, Mindy(2013). Observational Pain Scales in Critically Ill Adults. Critical Care Nurse. 33(3): 68-79. Pain is a common and distressing symptom in critically ill patients. Uncontrolled pain places patients at risk for numerous adverse psychological and physiological consequences, some of which may be life-threatening. A systematic assessment of pain is difficult in intensive care units because of the high percentage of patients who are noncommunicative and unable to self-report pain. Several tools have been developed to identify objective measures of pain, but the best tool has yet to be identified. A comprehensive search on the reliability and validity of observational pain scales indicated that although the Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool was superior to other tools in reliably detecting pain, pain assessment in individuals incapable of spontaneous neuromuscular movements or in patients with concurrent conditions, such as chronic pain or delirium, remains an enigma.  Click here to view


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